English Notes.








     Speaking two languages rather than just one has obvious practical benefits in an increasingly globalized world. but in recent years, scientists have begun to show that the advantages of bilingualism are even more fundamental than being able to converse with a wider range of people. Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even shielding against dementia in old age.


では、下線  でまとめられた単語はこれらで1つの意味を表しています。


     Speaking two languages^ rather than just one^ has obvious practical benefits^ in an increasingly globalized world.^ but in recent years^, scientists have begun to show that^ the advantages of bilingualism^ are even more fundamental^ than being able to converse with a wider range of people^. Being bilingual^, it turns out^, makes you smarter^. It can have a profound effect^ on your brain^, improving cognitive skills^ not related to language^ and even shielding against dementia^ in old age^.


     This view of bilingualism^ is remarkably different from the understanding of bilingualism^ through much of the 20th century.^ Researchers, educators and policy makers^ long considered a second language^ to be an interference,^ cognitively speaking^, that hindered a child’s academic and intellectual development^.


     They were not wrong about the interference^: there is ample evidence that^ in a bilingual’s brain^ both language systems are active^ even when he is using only one language,^ thus creating situations in which^ one system obstructs the other^. But this interference^, researchers are finding out,^ isn’t so much a handicap^ as a blessing in disguise^. It forces the brain^ to resolve internal conflict,^ giving the mind a workout^ that strengthens its cognitive muscles.^


In the first task, the children had to ... (続く)...


このように     で示した部分を一息で(または、ほかの塊と間をあけて)読むことで、複数の単語で作られる1つの意味のイメージを1度に1つずつ理解しながら(つまり3段落目の最後の文のでは「脳みそに強制させる、内なる対立を解消することを、頭にトレーニングを与えながら、それは認識力を強化する*。」といった具合に)、同時に、意図的に文の間や意味の間を開けることでより早く読むことができます。












*日本語の役に見られるように、英語では関係代名詞や関係副詞であるthat, which, where, when が使われます。これは日本語にはない文法で、通常日本語では名詞の前から装飾される(僕が食べた+リンゴ。認識力を強化する+トレーニング。)のに対し、英語では名詞の後ろから装飾されることがあります(An apple + that I ate. A workout + that strengthens its cognitive muscle.)